Indications of use

Any indications of how this book was used, or intended to be used, after its creation including marginal/ editorial comments, organization of riddles and solutions to facilitate their use, bookmarks, stains suggesting spills onto pages, later insertions of notes or letters.

Manuscript Note
Beinecke Osborn c110

Booklet is very deteriorated, but difficult to see if from use or just its not being bound or protected.

Pencil note speculating the manuscript was "the composition of Bishop Worth one of our ancestors" suggests the book was passed down through a family.

Beinecke Osborn c111

Cover very worn, especially at location of tie binding.

Items crossed out and a number of pages cut out after the index.

Beinecke Osborn c116

Signature page shows attempts to calculate Anna Sharpe’s birthdate.

Enclosed sheet of poems.

Ownership mark suggests paperbook was a gift from her father.

Some items reflect exchanges within social network.

Beinecke Osborn c130

Includes son’s tribute to mother at the end ("On the Death of a Most Indulgent Mother by her Son"); suggests rereading of the book.

Two items marked “+”

Beinecke Osborn c135

A green silk bookmark has stained one of the later pages somewhat, but a blank page.

Pasted-in latin poem titled "On Holbein's picture of Lord Cromwell."

Beinecke Osborn c139–142

Table of contents.

Occasional corrections, but seem to have been made as the book was compiled.

Binns must have taken pleasure in the sheer act of copying, given the very lengthy pieces.

Beinecke Osborn c143

Set up to be a manuscript miscellany (with an address to the reader, suggesting they were expecting/hoping for an audience) but intentions not fulfilled. The back of the book contains a memoranda of domestic account in another hand, dated 1837–1838, recording purchases from the baker, butcher, and ale merchant, and listing expenses related to "club nights."

Written on the flyleaf, in the same hand as the ownership mark: "Two shillings for the notice and certificate you must give notice to the superintendent Registrar the marriage may be solemnized by the production of the Registrar's ceritificate."

Beinecke Osborn c147

A group of pages folded over, probably accidentally.

Beinecke Osborn c149

On second last page, a brief ambigraph entry in Greek, seemingly a timeline of Sophocles' life.

Beinecke Osborn c150

Seemingly a commonplace book where items are copied as a first record, with the exception of the poem to a sister. 

Possibly an interim collection, with checkmarks beneath items in early pages (suggesting copying into another book).

Beinecke Osborn c152

The opening notations and Table of Contents suggest the book was given as a gift, already compiled, by Mrs. Ogle.

Manuscript seems to have been passed down and used for different purposes: contains later annotations by the recipient, then contributions by a different owner, followed by its use as a container for pasted-in letters.

Beinecke Osborn c153

Editorial notes on some verso pages. These notes suggest that this is a posthumous collection of writings by Wakeford, who died in childbirth in her 21st year.

Beinecke Osborn c156

Final page (235) crossed out.

Some items marked "MS," sometimes in combination with an author name, possibly signifying a manuscript source.

Beinecke Osborn c157

Instructions to reader at the bottom of p. 7 and p. 65 (solution to riddle/enigma).

Remains of pressed flowers.

Last section of the manuscript contains a number of knitting recipes, attributed to various acquaintances.

p. 93 – note re: Epitaph “enter’d a Second time by Mistake.”

First hand shows signs of erasure.

Later compiler has written a few short sententia on inside front cover. 

Beinecke Osborn c162

Annotations of poems in the margins and at bottoms; dialogue between the poems; use of “disguised” names — all suggest the manuscript was meant to be circulated, explicated, enjoyed within the group and perhaps beyond.

Beinecke Osborn c163

Some errors of words or lines that would occur in copying. Could be a first copying of materials for a collection.

Beinecke Osborn c167

Some material inserted in another hand.

Loose page of poetry inserted.

Beinecke Osborn c169

Perhaps copies of poems presented to a schoolmaster and written for other memorable occasions.

One poem added later in reference to a ten-year-old daughter. Seemingly not the writer’s child, because of praise for the two parental minds traced in child’s face,  though copyist could be the parent, if poem presented to her/him.

Beinecke Osborn c170

Pen trials on front page and also on back inside cover and last page.

Seems to be the record of a group of schoolfriends writing between Oxford and Winchester College.

Beinecke Osborn c172

Notes jotted on inside cover: list of names and dates in same hand as the contents.

Page edges stained as from page-turning.

Somewhat dog-eared, but could be a function of the lack of firm binding.

Beinecke Osborn c175

Book is quite worn, could be from use – see edges of front cover and ink stains at top corners of pages in early section of book, but no marks of later editing.

Beinecke Osborn c176

Damage to sides of first two pages, possibly chewed by rodents.

End pages also quite worn, potentially much thumbed.

p. 38/39 cut out, but pagination continuous, so ripped out early.

Some corrections, but most seem made at the point of copying; a few titles/words corrected.

Beinecke Osborn c179

Title pages and catchwords for ease of reading.

Illustrations seem designed to appeal to an audience, especially children. 

Beinecke Osborn c180

Last two leaves seem water-stained along the edges.

The compiler cross-references sources.

Beinecke Osborn c186

Some dog-eared pages.

Items have very different layouts and sizing; gives the sense that the compiler really enjoyed the act of copying – forming letters and numerals, etc.

Beinecke Osborn c187

Dog-eared pages.

Right-hand margin gives relevant scripture references.

Address to reader, so meant to speak to an audience.

Beinecke Osborn c189

A few notes, possibly later but in the same hand and may simply be a change of ink.

Beinecke Osborn c193

Silk bookmark. 

Beinecke Osborn c241

Sketch on back page looks like a dress fashionable at the turn of the nineteenth-century or later – perhaps signals continued reading of the book, or simply use of the book for scrap paper.

Book cover corners quite dog-eared, which could signify frequent reading.

Boards worn by use. 

Beinecke Osborn c258

The pen trials on the front cover.

Marks beside a few of the JW poems – maybe for recopying or to indicate source.  

Final poem written onto final page and inside back cover – same hand, but may have been added later.

Beinecke Osborn c265

Original compiler or slightly later owner has added in references.

Final riddles added even later.

Corners quite worn – page numbers worn off.

Beinecke Osborn c341

Record of a literary circle/coterie. 

Addition of poems on blanks before p. 1 suggests later use to record items found subsequently.

Beinecke Osborn c343

First Mary Queen of Scots poem has sections bracketed or circled, suggesting copying or use for some other purpose.

Some other poems with pencil underlining. 

Beinecke Osborn c351

Fair copy.

Ref. to next vol on p. 230: “See Vol: iv.”

Subheadings in the margin of longer poems (e.g., p. 172) for easy reference by subject.

Beinecke Osborn c360 (1/3)

Some pages used for handwriting practice in another hands eg. p. 1v, p. 6v.

Noticeable water damage eg. p. 3 but really up to around p. 35—this book got wet at some point around the edges.

Annotations explaining literary references, giving marriage dates etc. as to the female subjects of his poetry.

Blank paper pasted over versos of many pages eg. pp. 4v, 12v, 38v etc. Different colour and not stained like some of the earlier pages are so seemingly a more recent addition.

p. 9v updating context behind poems as he learns more information.

Beinecke Osborn c376

Subsequent cross-outs and annotation of many of the self-epitaphs.

Beinecke Osborn c382

Small loose leaf paper tucked into spine, likely some sort of bookmark.

Blot papers bound between each sheet, blots don't align with underlying text. 

Beinecke Osborn c391

J.A. Giles’ note on the inside-front-cover: "Whenever literature or poetry was named, she produced this book." 

Some poems finished on the sides of pages eg. pp. 2, 17, 28 implying that this first section of the book was compiled sporadically, and a little out of order. 

Insert at the bottom of p. 12 (an epigram) seemingly in the same hand but added later to the remaining space on the page in a different colour ink.


pp. 76–97 were used by a child for handwriting practice. 

Beinecke Osborn c481

The drawing of the ship on the (first) title page is annotated: “On a Voyage in the above Ship [“Ship, Wo Fortmans; Robt. Mertin Commander”] from Jamaica to England, The Above Drawing was made by John Dovaston in the Ship Frydan May 13th. 1774 See My Journal, of that Voyage.”

Lengthy annotations and footnotes imply an assumed readership.

Annotations in a diff (faded red) ink pp. 289–291.

Beinecke Osborn c536

Trial signatures on the inside-back-cover or flyleaf of the book.

The top of page 9 has been cut-out. 

Dark spots on the back of the book, probably an attempt to mark the book with her name.

Beinecke Osborn c548

Full of pen trials, writing of names, and  calculations. 

Beinecke Osborn c563

Intended as a present to the compiler’s future wife Sarah “Sally” Leaper, see p. 100. 

Oxford school friends: many poems to/ about recently deceased school friend Robert LaRogue (aka “R.L.R.” or “Bob”); many poems to J. Eyre; annotations p. 49v: “Blick and Eyre us’d to be particularly intimate. As were LaRogue & Simpson”; annotation p. 51v gives the order the friends arrived at Oxford, followed by “And my intention of verifying this little Tale was unhappily prevented by the unfortunate Death of R.L.R.”

Note Leaper and Eyre contributions at the end, implying Eyre saw it before it was given to Leaper (presumably?), and Leaper returned to it after her marriage to Simpson to finish the story. 

Beinecke Osborn c570

Annotation on verso of front flyleaf: "Satirical Poems written after the death of Queen Anne on the coming in of the House of Hanover."

Seemingly composed over a moderate or extended period of time given divergences in ink and spacing, as well as the catalogue's estimated dating.

Occasional explanatory footnotes.

p. 105 cross-out (of The Norfolk Ballade).

At least four pages torn out at the end of vol. 4.

Beinecke Osborn c591

Most items seem to be school exercises, or inspired by school exercises. Imitations and translations frequent. 

Beinecke Osborn c595

Second part of the book taken over in the 1830s by another hand copying religious verse. 

Beinecke Osborn c662

Indications that main compiler later went through and added the occasional annotation in old age, judging by shaky hand. 

A few scattered pencil scribbles.

Beinecke Osborn c688

Some later pencil or ink notes to explain contexts and provide dates.

Beinecke Osborn c82

Cross-outs; not a presentation copy.

Religious prose note on the back-cover.

The name “Dean” is practised twice on the left-hand-side of the cover page (the first name of the printer of the cover photo).

Beinecke Osborn c83

Very organised, fair-copy. Seemingly a family book. 

Beinecke Osborn c90

Waterstains across the bottom of the pages in the first half of the book.

Insect holes chewed through many of pages in first half of book.

Beinecke Osborn c91

"Original Poems" written at the top of p. 1. 

p. 331 note "Those which follow have been added at various times" indicates items that were copied into the book after the primary's compiler's compilation. This includes seven extra poems and six numbered tables, plus a final poem pasted onto the inside back cover in a tissue/onion skin paper.

Frequent references to these materials being written for schoolchildren or for occasions such as weddings and departures of friends.

Beinecke Osborn d226

Fair copy (no corrections) but not decorative

Primarily a collection of poems by Edward Venn and C.A. Venn, so potentially a family book.

The second and third poems (the ones that are definitely in a different hand) might be copied by a child for practice.

Beinecke Osborn d232

Numerous corrections and annotations, not a fair copy. 

Beinecke Osborn d256

Seemingly some later fill-ins and annotations in very tiny hand

Beinecke Osborn d258

The catalogue description suggests the book may have been for children, but it was just as likely the work of a group of elderly people.

The names Nadir, Bree, and Rio, in addition to the section titles imply the book is reflective of a coterie.

The section titles suggest the final two sections (at least) were compiled as a way of passing the time in winter 1808; not a gift book or a book necessarily made to be revisited.

Stanza crossed-out in pencil (after being copied in ink) on p. 78. 

Maria Rogers (the illustrator) has written her name at the end of one of Bree’s poem on p. 2 of the third section. 

Beinecke Osborn d447

Annotations on front and back pastedowns. 

Front and back endpapers, as well as occasional pages throughout, contain accounts and records of financial transactions. 

Some childish drawings.

Beinecke Osborn d49

A group of poems composed at and/or about Crewe Hall or Mrs. Crewe (from about pp. 243–312) were seemingly copied, and maybe in order, from a Crewe Hall album composed in the 1780s/90s. Perhaps used as a way to memorialise the social circles of his father and aunt. 

Occasional footnotes, some seemingly copied intact from print sources (eg. p. 69 annotation, which is signed "Editor").

Does not include solutions to the riddles from the Crewe album.

Beinecke Osborn d492

Faintly in pencil on the first page: "TRACTS," followed by some numbers which are either dates or prices.

p. 69 the compiler mistakenly began to re-copy the stanza he just finished then scribbled out the duplicate line. Otherwise a very fair copy, decorative book.

Taken over other nineteenth-century hands at the end, one of which is J.H. Waite, which suggests the compiler died or otherwise passed it on to a relative after the manuscript's composition. 

Beinecke Osborn d494

Bookmark between p. 125 and p. 126.

Beinecke Osborn d512

Catalogue suggests the manuscript was probably compiled during Allcard's education at Ackworth school, a Quaker establishment.

Annotations to “On War” and “A sorrowful account” give historical context.

Vol. 2 is more than half blank.

Some minor cross-outs (no more than a few words); a fair copy book.

In Vol. 2 on p. 2 she accidentally skipped a stanza, then added it in at the bottom of the page.

Beinecke Osborn d69

Large waterstain on the outside-edge of most pages of the book, though it’s much faded by the last ten pages or so.

Corrections to poem on pp. 17–26, 75, 95, 216, 338, etc. suggest the book was considered fair copy with some notable exceptions.

The poems are generally not copied in the order they were written.

Original poems are generally unsigned, suggesting the compiler may not have intended to circulate their work.

Beinecke Osborn d80

Some pressed flowers in blank section.

Notes on flyleaf imply a book handed on over several decades 

Beinecke Osborn d93

Given the contents, seemingly the book of a pre-teen or teenage girl.

Poems dated and organised chronologically, but seemingly compiled over a shorter period of time, presumably from 1807, when she made the inscription at the front of the book, to 1810, with two poems added at the end of the book in 1831. The second of these poems is on the death of her two children. 

Beinecke Osborn fc124

p. 1 note next to the bird drawings: “These were the occupations of dear Quarles Harris during a long & suffering illness, which carried him to the grave at the age of fourteen— 1817—"

Clear editorial notes, i.e. not a clean copy (e.g., p. 3, 15, 55, 68, 86, etc.)

Some of the print inserts seem to be covering up text (e.g., p. 4, 7, 8, 54, etc.)

Miscellaneous additions, e.g., p. 41 pencil drawing of a house’s layout; p. 54 scrap of what appears to be a journal entry; p. 89 a letter (with the mark of a red seal) pasted-in.

Family book—contains poetry and drawings by a number of the compiler's children.

Beinecke Osborn fc130

Inside covers, front and back, annotated with numerous names and addresses.

Pages clearly excised after p. 80, also likely excisions at the beginning of the book (though cleaner ones), based on the pagination, which begins with 45.

Beinecke Osborn fc132

Compiled during Forbes' travels and continued after he returned to London in 1784.

p. 221 decorative pink footnotes; the last line of the final poem is also written in pink and initialed by the compiler.

Beinecke Osborn fc135

Fair copy. 

Laid in: other verses, including an epitaph on Lord Charles Montagu, a coronation ode for Charles II, and verse letters from Trinity College signed "T. Montagu." Also with a genealogical chart of the Montagu family.

Beinecke Osborn fc183

Two small loose-leaf love poems inserted at the end of the book, one potentially pasted to what would be p. 245: “A Song” and “My Friend & Pitcher/ A Song in the Poor Soldier.”

Cross-outs are very rare—this is a fair copy book. One exception is the author attribution for “The Hermit” (p. 80), which was originally attributed to Beattie, then corrected to say Parnell.

Occasional contextual annotations.

Beinecke Osborn fc185

Images on Mirador show what look like loose papers pasted into a larger book.

Laid in: newspaper clipping from the Daily Telegraph dated April 16, 1974.

Beinecke Osborn fc51

Occasional short footnotes.

Variations in handwriting towards the end of the manuscript verse miscellany suggest a passage of time or dwindling interest in the neatness of the project.

Beinecke Osborn fc58

Signature trials on front flyleaf by Mrs. Howard Pigott Esqr. 

Two consecutive hands suggest that the second copyist took over the book, completing the first copyist's final poem and concentrating on the same themes. 

Clean copy except for a cross-out on p. 169 of a short potentially original rather out of place love poem.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. c. 9

Annotations added later.

Frequent insertions of letters, including an original letter from F. Webb to John Hawkins in 1743.

Other insertions in other hands. 

Pages have been cut out. 

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. d. 189

Interim book with materials seemingly copied into some other book(s) subsequently (p. 84 – note: “Copy this”; others have “This” written on them, which also might be a mark for copying. Sometimes items have both “This” marked and an “x” – could be crossed out after copied?)

Many school exercises. 

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. d. 47

Key to coterie pseudonyms on final page. Poem "The Amicables” contains indications of characters, figures, professions, and ages of the male characters.

Poems frequently reference members of a circle or network centred around Kidlington in Oxfordshire, various Oxford Colleges, and Leicestershire. 

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 109

Posthumous compilation suggests commemoration of mother or grandmother's poetry.

At the end of the filled portion of book, two blank leaves have been cut out, suggesting a latter use of the book that was then excised.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 111

A commemoration of individuals (father) and occasions (elections, etc.).

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 28

Bookmark in pp. 295-6.

Items likely added later to fit the school exercises, Burns, Cowper etc. into the available blank pages of the book.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 40

Manicules marking certain items suggest the compiler expected an audience.

Frequent annotations on verso side of page; annotations may be either personal context (see Item 73) or factual explanations (see Item 225).

Missing first section (the first sixteen items).

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 47

This whole book seems to be a woman’s book, even if source is a man’s library because of subject matter and also laundry list at end, in same hand.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. f. 28

Book is in very good condition, so likely kept as a souvenir rather than read on a regular basis.

The fact that each poem is signed suggests fair copies, though some revisions.

Some revisions to items.

Bodleian MS Harding b. 41

Note from “Harriet Binny” (written backwards) indicates book circulated among friends.

Note to “Polly” highlights her taste in selection.

Bodleian MS Mont. e. 13

Answers to riddles generally given at bottom of same page.

Clear effort to complete Mary Tadwell's work suggests commemorative manuscript or manuscript of family importance.

Bodleian MS Mont. e. 14

Several poems by "Scriblerus," who seems to be Eliza Chapman's suitor.

British Library Add. MS 28102

Annotations indicate retrospective copying into this collection, and perhaps even later annotation (e.g. f. 202, Abu-Zelim to Selima–a Letter In Imitation of the Turkish Spy is annotated: "This, & the Four following Letters were first written above 40. Years ago & Transcribd, Anno 1767").

British Library Add. MS 29981

As the title suggests, this is a collection of poems on a single topic from a short period of time, something of a literary-historical record.

Note the prominence of significant dates in titles such as May 29th and June 10th.

Rare (minor) corrections.

British Library Add. MS 37684

The two indexes (one at the beginning and one at the end of the book) call into question what the book's intended use was. If the second index was intended as a correction to the first, why not tear out the first? The book appears to be something between a messy and clean copy.

Occasional, minor corrections, mostly in the same hand (although a few look like later edits). These corrections are frequently to diction in the original poems (e.g., p. 25) or capitalisation/spelling. 

One of the poems with later corrections in a different hand is "Lewis Lucinda weds oh that my tongue..." (p. 48) which the FLI claims was written by Anna Taylor, William's wife. If this is the case (though the digitisation shows no sign of a specific attribution for this item) she was possibly the later hand that made minor changes to diction and added "By a Lady" next to the title.

Pen trials on pp. 124–125.

Note on front flyleaf: “C[?] [?] translated [?] & M[?] p. 13. 22.”

British Library Add. MS 58802

Multiple excisions. 

British Library Add. MS 59656

Poems used to commemorate deaths in family, love, friendship, and artistic pursuits. 

British Library Add. MS 70494

Intended as a gift to Margaret Cavendish.

Some annotation, adjustment of wordings and titles to indicate that this is a collection preserved by Jenyns or given to someone other than its original addressees/recipients

British Library Add. MS 75569

Annotations near the beginning of book.

Perhaps filled up by a later compiler, but this later person, if this is indeed the case, takes ownership of the book in terms of signature, commentary.

Chawton House 2622, MAN LOF

Pressed flowers, two labelled with Latin names.

Between ff. 51–52 pages have been cut-out. The pagination is uninterrupted but the pages clearly had writing on them. 

Chawton House 4946, MAN WIL

Explanatory notes (eg. in the full title of “To Mr Morris (Mrs Wilmot’s brother) on his Wedding-day Nov:r”) suggest retroactive compilation of the book.

Explanatory footnotes in a different hand (eg. “(Valentine Morris of Piercefield Park was at one time Governor & C in Chief of St. Vincent)”).

Notebook 1: “From Mrs Wilmot to her Daughter Elizabeth Sarah Wilmot in answer to some verses” has been corrected/ revised, whether at that time or later; “From Mr Garrick to Mrs Wilmot on Doctor Cadogan’s abusing Shakespeare” crossed-out.

Notebook 2: Some cross-outs to replace alternative words – seem to be revisions rather than copy errors.

Notebook 3: [ff. 8-9] – intervening page cut out, and this item is erased or written over in title and first 4 lines on f. 8, final lines at top of f. 9.

Clark MS 1948.003

Index is alphabetical; titles tend to be short and sometimes made up, especially for extracts, so possibly intended to be used to reference items to be remembered.

End leaves used for pen trials, lists of clothing and household inventory that have been crossed out.

Clark MS 1950.025

"x"s mark series of political poems. 

Clark MS 1968.002

Some of the sentiments possibly material for the sentimental fiction that occupies the later portions of the book; blank pages or sections also used for “notes to self,” it seems.

Sixty-two blank pages about two-thirds of the way through the book with scattered entries – containing directions on how to turn water into ice (pencil, later hand); list of birthdays (pencilled note suggests in G.W. Newnham’s writing); two pages of recipes (elder wine, quince marmalade, currant jelly) in Ann Bromfield’s hand;  two page chart of coins in a collection, dated up to 1854.

Clark MS 1976.014

Some mold staining to blank pages at the end of the volume.

Page torn out in the middle of the blank section of the book, so used for scrap paper.

Most titles changed and many lines altered, suggesting that much of this compilation may have been written from memory. 

Clark MS 1982.001

Use of shorthand suggest this was perhaps viewed as a private book (for eg. used in the case of Chevy Chase ballad, seemingly either to speed up copying of 54 stanzas or because of satiric material). 

Note on p. 68 claims manuscript transmission of poem from Elizabeth Rowe. Other manuscript transmissions indicated in other endnotes. 

Clark MS 1983.001

Children’s drawings and scribbles in first two openings, and in some margins of text. 

Clark MS 1984.001

Wool or hair or some other fibre stuck into top of pp numbered 95 and 96.

Possibly later annotations – for example on the page numbered 43.

Clark MS 1984.004

Note opposite p.1 to the reader about underlining (as well as title page and index) suggest efforts made to unify the book, and sense of an audience. 

Clark MS 1986.003

Loose inserted sheet could be in the hand of daughter or granddaughter.

Annotations of married names and/or relationships to Catherine Springett for some contributors provided in pencil, seemingly by granddaughter, Mary Sankey.

There are also pencilled-in solutions to a number of the riddles/enigmas, suggesting the book was read, and used for entertainment by successive owners.

Clark MS 1987.001

Title and contents suggest educational use, whether formal (e.g. governess to pupil) or informal (relation or older friend to young member of family).

Gutter between pp. 108 and 109 contains dried plant material.

Clark MS 1993.001

Some annotations at the time or later – e.g. p. 7 and 8 – but still cryptic in case of annotations done at the time of copying – e.g. p. 7. 

Clark MS 1994.001

A book structured upon the narrative of her life, compiled retrospectively. 

The volume was used to press flowers and leaves in the nineteenth-century by Tibbits's granddaughter Mary Isabella Hood, wife of the 3rd Viscount Hood, who wrote annotations for her no longer extant specimens. Annotations contained species, date, and place of picking. There are still two ferns (without any annotations) near the end of the volume.

Flower pressing one-hundred years later suggests book was valued as a keepsake.

Clark MS 2000.005

Annotations show retrospective reading, whether by the compiler or others.

Introductory remarks in volume one state that the compiler has collected his scattered pieces because of  a resolution to leave off writing poetry; his friends have tried to persuade him to print a volume for private purposes, but he's glad he hasn’t done so – “for as this Manuscript-Copy may serve hereafter as a Memorandum of some of my past spent Hourse during my Clerkship, and may remind me of a few agreeable Circumstances hinted at or expressed in some of the pieces, my utmost Wishes and Expectations are most satisfactorily answered” (1.12; signed J.S. Junior and dated Doncaster Novr. 1790.)

Volume 2 begins with noting he is breaking the resolution not to write any more poetry; says his new poetry has been stimulated by studies at the University of Oxford when he left the profession of Law for the Church; he writes he is not seeking praise, but hopes the poems “may in future afford such a Satisfaction to himself and his friends as contemplative Minds enjoy in tracing back past Occurrences, and calling to remembrance the Circumstances of Youth” (volume 2, p. 7).

Volume 4 (the memoir) titled: "Private memoirs of the life of the Rev. John Sanderson, A.B. / written by himself and designed for domestic perusal."

Clark MS 2008.023

Vol. 2: Pencilled annotations on a few items, providing author names, titles, occasions.

Vol. 3: Subsequently pencilled-in title of the first poem, other annotations; this volume may be incomplete in the sense that spaces for titles (and sometimes authors) have been left at the tops of pages (though some of these have author name at the end).

Vol. 4: Like like volume 3, titles written in later in a lighter ink; titles generally seem to have been entered quickly in blank spaces originally intended for more elaborate titles; there is generally a rougher sense to this volume, with cross-outs, etc.

Clark MS 2010.030

A very fine copy with very few correction and emendations. No marking-up of the poems at all – treated more like a sacred text, with reverence, perhaps.

Clark MS 2015.014

Clear intention signified by the opening framing of quotations from Johnson, Gray, and Beattie – the definition of epitaph and some general sentiments on the act of memorialization.

Marks of a series of owners suggest it was valued as a keepsake, and family memento.

Clark MS 2019.001
Erased writing at the top of p. 1 was perhaps a short prefatory
statement (or just an inappropriate use of the paper later erased).
Some negligible marginal water staining to first and last leaves. 
Clark MS 2019.032

Later corrections, annotations, explanatory headers. 

Pages 77–78 have been deliberately excised. 

Clark MS 2019.038

An educational exercise book of some sort. Opening poem suggests this may be a case of home education, provided by a mother.

An interesting example of a woman's education in the first half of the eighteenth-century, which could include learning invoicing one day, followed by poems or letter-writing the next.

Folger MS M.a.104

Date of the epilogue (1729) apparently the date of its delivery.

Folger MS M.a.110

Titling of extracts according to subject suggests that this book was intended to be used as a commonplace book of poetry. So does the (abandoned) thumb-tab index.

Folger MS M.a.116

Later use of book to record George Warner’s epitaph [Azaria's father in law] as well as several medicinal recipes – possibly used by widow or one of her children – see annotation of anniversary poem on p. 118.

Folger MS M.a.142

Cross outs.

Sense of ad hoc filling-in rather than advance planning.

Stubs of excised leaves follow leaves 6, 26, 63, 64, 75. 

Folger MS M.a.15

Whole book appears carefully compiled with attention to aesthetic features.

Folger MS M.a.162

Some pages trimmed along margins, seemingly to remove material.

Folger MS M.a.163

Social sphere represented suggests the compiler was not just getting this material from public/print sources. 

Very feminocentric collection. 

Folger MS M.a.169

Apparently owned/ used by William Bromley, d. 1732, so very early after production of the book by J. Wright.

Table of Contents in a hand other than the compiler’s, so perhaps that of Wright, indicating his use of the book as source of poetry and information.

Folger MS M.a.170

Artistic embellishments suggest that the book had a decorative/display function

Folger MS M.a.174

Table of contents for guiding future readers. 

Folger MS M.a.179

Explanatory footnotes, seemingly written at time of copying. These suggest the use of book as a record of a literary coterie. Compiler demonstrates insider knowledge of the subjects and writers/addressees of the poems, either firsthand or through the poems’ source(s).

Folger MS M.a.180

Book taken over by an “organizing hand” who pays tribute to Elizabeth Gilchrist, fills in material on verso pages that were originally blank, provides explanatory notes to first poem, etc. Likely expected an audience and sought to preserve Gilchrist's work. 

Folger MS M.a.181

“Solutions, Of the Riddles, Charades, Anagrams etc." at the back of the book. These riddle, charades, etc. are numbered throughout for easy reference at the back. This suggests the book was used for sociable reading and games. 

Folger MS M.a.182

A lot of retrospective editing, crossouts etc. 

Folger MS M.a.183

Small slip of paper used as bookmark.

Folger MS M.a.186

Brown-purple stain at top and side of pages around p. 400, perhaps a wine stain.

Something dropped onto the book from the top and from the upper side.

Some identities of individuals addressed in poems are pencilled in next to the items in the Table of Contents.

Folger MS M.a.231

Cut out pages (eight pages after p. 6, also pp. 27–30). 

Folger MS M.a.53–58

Opening silhouette by granddaughter, note by daughter, and poem by friend memorialising the compiler serves as a “wreath” in his remembrance set before the collection of poetry he compiled.

Folger MS M.b.13

Riddles, especially, have notes like “Vid R,” indicating that the answer is in the index under that letter, suggesting the book was to be used by others who would want to guess the answers before being able to see them. 

Evidence the compilation extended over many years.

Small sheet pasted-in in another hand about a large oak cut down in Monmouthshire in 1810, with a letter to the writer's father by a neighbouring gentleman confirming the information. 

Folger MS M.b.21

Riddle given on page 373 with instructions to see the following page for answer.

Inserted slips of paper containing scraps of poetry in French and Greek with translations.

Other scraps of paper perhaps used as bookmarks.  

Folger MS M.b.23

Insert of note signed MC and dated Feb. 1829, addressed to Miss S—. 

Stubs of excised leaves at the front, another at leaves 113–114.

Folger MS N.b.3

Frequent ink cross-outs and corrections.

“Appears to address a wider audience” than the Northamptonshire manuscript (Keith, p. lxii) — two introductory layers ie. the two commendatory poems and the preface (Keith, p. lxiii).

Pencil crosses next to items throughout the manuscript. Pencil annotation on title page says "All the poems marked thus (+) are printed."

Folger MS W.a.118

Editorial changes to first few items (but later entries cleaner).

Folger MS W.a.271

Occasional footnotes to explain references – implying a somewhat later audience.

Several items indicate “not to be given away/parted with” – suggesting private circulation of these poems. Also implies that the rest of the collection is being shared.

Houghton MS Am 1013


Corrections (of punctuation and letters) written beside the text (like an annotation would be) instead of next to or on-top of the text. A very neat manuscript, like an editor's copy. 

Houghton MS Am 1369

Seemingly missing the first page, or the first couple pages. No remnants of a tear-out, but the page begins, “and Thus having copulated our plebian[sic] Endeavours…” and it seems odd to begin with a lower-case “a.” Also, this short passage is followed by a couple footnotes (“*—together with our Domesticks” and “+ Grammatic quam non Intelligant populi”) that don’t connect to anything in the above (or below) text.

p. 1 scribbles between items, not sure what they say.

Houghton MS Am 1894

 Vol. 1: the final item has been cut out; p. 18 addition of a missing line at the bottom of the page (as an annotation). This stands out in an otherwise perfectly fair copy manuscript; some staining in the upper right-hand corners, likely from the pages being turned eg. p. 159, 161.

Vol. 2: cross-outs of single words, but still very much a fair copy manuscript; division into two parts suggests awareness of the fact that part two isn’t thematically coherent with part one, though he attempts to return to his usual religious theme with the final poem.

Houghton MS Am 1894.1(1)

Opening letter to “reveren’d Religioso,” presumably a moniker for the intended recipient. 

Pen trials on inside covers and some pages.

Some cross-outs but mostly a fair copy book, which makes sense since it was seemingly intended as a gift.

Houghton MS Am 1919

Three crossed out lines and a pen trial after the last item, possibly in the same hand, but much messier. This looks like an attempt at an addition that failed because the writer ran out of ink in their pen. The writing is too faint to read after the first two lines, and the cross-outs obscure it, but it says something like "A Coward’s heart is in his backs[?]/ A frog he would a wooing go …"

 Infrequent cross-outs but overall very much a fair copy book. 

Faded writing filled-in in pencil. The pencil also filled-in the blanks on p. 54: “C— L—l” is now “Co Lovel.” On the same page, the pencil underlined the word “Brazen,” and wrote another word next to it (that I can’t quite make out). Pencil underlines on p. 58, as well.

Seemingly a round ink stain at the bottom of the spine on pp. 28–29 that blead through multiple pages.

Houghton MS Am 910

Includes a list of names of female students at Mr. Woodbridge Academy in 1796, which suggests this book was made while Story was a student at the academy. Perhaps created as a school exercise.

The personal poem about her brother's death at the end could suggest the book fell out of use for awhile, or perhaps she intended to end the volume with a tribute to Isaac.

Houghton MS Eng 1280

A literary journal written for her adopted nephew John Salusbury Piozzi containing family and personal information, so clearly intended to be informative as well as a kind of family memorabilia. 

Explanatory annotations to people, places, and events Salusbury might be unfamiliar with.

Piozzi frequently encourages selections of the book or the book itself be published posthumously. 

Mostly fair copy—some large cross-outs (of paragraphs) but very few small corrections (of individual letters or words). 

Houghton MS Eng 1323

Many handwritten items have been pasted-in.

Some blank areas where other articles used to be pasted; the spaces are seemingly clean (of glue), but show shadows the size of other paste-in items eg. p. 29.

Houghton MS Eng 569.63

The compiler was seemingly using the back section of the manuscript upside-down for hunting records while compiling the poetry section from the front.

Second hand added to blank pages at a later date.

Some cross-outs, eg. p. 66.

Pencil sketches of 3D cylinders and rectangles on inside-front and -back cover, seemingly not by the compiler, who used ink. Some pencil scribblings in the manuscript as well, eg. p. 62.

Some pencil corrections, eg. p. 70.

Houghton MS Eng 584

Multiple intermingled hands suggest a team effort, though the volume was clearly organised by Cumberlege. 

The decorative and coloured title page for the final poem, an original poem called “An Elogium upon a Monastick Life” on p. 183, demonstrates pride in the composition. It was seemingly added around the same time as the other coloured title pages (on p. 1 and 24) ie. at the beginning of the compositional process. This is the only item not paginated and the neatness of the hand differs from the previous items, because the book is otherwise increasingly messy. 

Houghton MS Eng 606

Annotations of famous people’s names.

Ambigraph section begun with prayers and so perhaps originally intended as a section for prayers instead of poetry.

Houghton MS Eng 611

Vol. 1:

Brown staining on the page before p. 1 that has bled through the page, and also stained p. 9.

Infrequent corrections—both volumes are more foul than fair copy. 

References to other personal manuscripts eg. p. 183 “I have put this to ye subject of spiritualization, in thin 40. Parchmt: Cover. begun in 1770.” Also, considering the dates provided in this volume, this note was added ten years after its completion ie. these volumes were revisited, and he felt comfortable adding notes to them.

Annotations and corrections by red pencil. Other Rev. Austen volume (Houghton GEN MS Eng 614) contains an item in ink: “Sent me Augt. 10. 1772 by a friend, in a Letter. Mr D—k,” and next to that in red-pencil: “Wht Dethick sent me.” This seems to indicate that the annotator/ editor is the same as the compiler. So the red-pencil is likely the compiler. See also p. 78: “This mark is made by a Revd judicious hand.” Vol. 2 also very clearly contains the compiler’s hand in red-ink.

Vol. 2:

Title page says “Calculated for an Occasional Supply to the Monthly Magazine Writers” but next to that is written (in the same hand) “N.B. I have not sent any to the Press as yet, & never design so to do. Feb. 1765.” Perhaps an indication the compiler changed his mind about print publication. 

p. 78 “vid: the following Articles in MS book of poetical works which might be altered & corrected & fitted for the design of this Book.” Followed by a list of poems and pp. numbers. p. 79 contains more ideas for filling this manuscript and other projects including “vid. my folio Mss. Collections towards a Natural History of Kent.”

p. before p. 1 “Begun March 5th: 1760.” First page of ambigraph section says “Begun Mond: Oct. 22d. 1759” so, seemingly, the ambigraph section was begun before the first section or first volume. Also, p. 201 beginning of Churchill poems annotation “Churchill’s true Character, see at ye Last back of this book” referring to poem on flyleaf. This allows for the possibility that the ambigraph section was completed before this section (we know from the date it was begun first) leaving a finite amount of space.

Houghton MS Eng 614

Manicules, usually pointing to titles; I’m guessing a mark of approval or particular enthusiasm for an item eg. p. 120.

Red pencil markings like in Austen’s other mss Houghton GEN MS Eng 611; sometimes underlines, sometimes annotations, sometimes crosses next to items. p. 106 item in ink: “Sent me Augt. 10. 1772 by a friend, in a Letter. Mr D—k.” Next to that in red-pencil: “Wht Dethick sent me.” The “me” of the red-pencil seems to indicate the annotator/ editor is the same as the compiler. 

Check-marks and crosses next to items and stanzas (eg. p. 4) could suggest recopying in other manuscripts.

p. 15 annotation “I have placed this to my ms. Collection of Maxims.” and p. 142 annotation “lay this up in my MSS. Collection of occasional Meditatns. in quarto volume; as it vastly well suits them.” ie. T. A. was compiling manuscripts simultaneously or going back to make connections between them at a later date. Also used the manuscript for notes to himself. This suggests they are informal, personal items to him.

p. 150 annotated “Jan. 25. began a letter to a friend with these 2 stanzas after illness.” Sharing materials from this manuscript, borrowing verses for inspiration/ correspondence.

Houghton MS Eng 680

Plenty of indications the book was compiled non-chronologically (blanks, spaces left for poems or decorative titles, general sense of space being designated before the previous pages were complete).

p. 69 pencil insert in another hand: “Paraphrase of [?] of Job by [?]”

p. 94 the first three lines only feature the first word of each line (as though those words were transcribed first for the whole page, followed by the remainder of each line). 

p. 121 “To the Memory of E: S.” only the first three words of the first line have been copied (“Whilst other were”), the rest of the page underneath the title is blank.

p. 122 “Elegy” crossed-out aggressively

Houghton MS Eng 768

Pencil lines drawn faintly on the page suggest this manuscript was used for handwriting learning or practice (given the age of the compiler). 

vol. 1 p. 67 Riddles, then vol. 1 p. 83 the solutions to the riddles ie. intended to be read by someone other than the compiler who wouldn’t already know the answers.

Houghton MS Eng 926

Fair copy book with very few edits.

Old folds or repaired tears on pp. 27–30

Houghton MS Hyde 35 (4)

Compiled around the same time as Houghton GEN MS 1280, which is more of a miscellany. This manuscript was seemingly dedicated exclusively to original verse. 

Huntington MS 106

Final little poem indicates that a reader is expected/ hoped for.

Huntington MS 29165

Annotations throughout, in the hand of the principal compiler – explanatory commentary, but also evaluative commentary like “nonsense,” or (for Indian Man’s Creed) “I do not approve of the forgoing[sic] Creed but the wildness of the Verses pleased me.”

Huntington Stowe Vol. III

p. 40 annotation explaining literary reference.

Sequence of (five) prose items p. 25, then pp. 28–33.

p. 23 scribbled-out title, with the full item subsequently copied on p. 28, presumably because of concerns about space, or for the sake of including it in the prose sequence.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 100

Seemingly contains a record of coterie exchanges in the middle (ff. 57–48).

“Key to the Riddles” written upside-down on the first (unpaginated) page at the front of the ms, perhaps suggesting anticipation of a reader who wouldn’t already know the answers.

Frequent annotations throughout, eg. f. 86.

f. 94 item seemingly added in at a later date in remaining space, and then when the compiler ran out of space, a paper insert was added as well. Another paper insert between ff. 34–35.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 103

Possibly later use of the book by ambigraph copying of Gentleman’s Magazine items 1803-4.

Otherwise not marked up.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 104

Last item crossed-out (f. 103r). 

Ruled-lines on f. 95v (and no other page)—perhaps someone intended to use this page for handwriting practice.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 106

Printed pieces pasted in may have been inserted at a later date, using blank pages.

Also handwritten medical receipts, and some other bits of information seem to be later additions, sometimes pasted in – some of these also written or pasted-in sideways; some are foldout.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 11

Successive entries suggest book was passed on as a useful record of something, perhaps a personalised anthology. 

Spine label suggests the volume was bound by someone as part of a larger collection of manuscripts. 

Leeds Brotherton Lt 110

Verso entries were seemingly done after the recto ones.

Annotations providing context to place and people names on ff. [70–73].

Leeds Brotherton Lt 119

The section of poems beginning f. 81 and up to penultimate poem seems associated with the Yorke-Grey coterie, including poems by Charles Yorke, George Lyttelton, Hester Mulso (acquired through Thomas Birch – see correspondence in the British Library), Thomas Edwards, Margaret Yorke.

Verso side used to provide explanatory notes identifying people and places at some points.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 12

Passed in some way from the first compiler to George Scott, with approximately ten years between when the first compiler stopped and the second compiler began. The second compiler also took up the index from where the first compiler left off.

According to the blanks mentioned by the catalogue, the book was still not filled up by the second compiler.

Second compiler seemingly culled items from contemporary newspapers (chronologically).

Most of p. 15/16 cut out.

Annotations in the margins.

Cross-outs, pp. 52, 69.

Annotations in the hand of the second compiler suggest occasional original composition – eg. p. 98.

Two pages of Latin proverbs with English answers at the end of the second hand section.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 123

The primary hand, even when not using section titles, often seems to compile in groups based on theme/ subject matter, eg. pp. 61–77 are all poems thematically about night and day.

Frequent crosses next to item titles.

Presumably a lot of original material, but signs of editing are extremely rare and minor ie. this is a fair copy book.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 125

Annotations, eg. p. 53, sometimes numbered.

Item cross-outs.

p. 80 two single word cross-outs and corrections — either meant to correct messy handwriting or edits to an original item.

p. 196–197 spilled ink.

p. 80 pen trials.

“Eliza Lee” signature on p. 142 next to pen trials/ scribbles — the pen trials/ scribbles maybe added in by her, the later owner.

Tear-outs at the end of the manuscript.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 15

p. 211: “I ended this book Novr. 13th. 1723,” but small dated notes from the 1740s (eg. p. 118) and added items suggest the compiler returned to the book after 1723. 

pp. 190–198 is an excerpt from a play, except p. 196, which is a complete poem (A Country Life). This could suggest that some items were added before others, meaning that the manuscript might not have been compiled from front to back.

Frequent latin notes at the tops of pages and throughout the manuscript often with dates in 1740s, suggesting these poems were re-read frequently, though no sign of alteration at these later dates. If the Latin notes could be deciphered/ translated, this would indicate more specifically how the compiler used the book after its compilation. 

Leeds Brotherton Lt 20

Perfectly fair copy book. No scribbles or mistakes.

Compilation all in one period of time, judging from uniform hand and wording and date of title page.

p. 79 manicule marking passage re: “The Secret Joys of Sweet Coition” felt by all animals.

A second "with" is written underneath the "with" on the tile page, as though someone was practising imitating the letter forms. 

Leeds Brotherton Lt 24

Apparent creation of the book out of at least two previous books, with segments of each book intermingled, shows a large-scale organizing effort subsequent to compilation.

Same compiler and similar compilation period to Leeds Brotherton Lt 53.

p. 33 large ownership mark dated 1729, and subsequent list of names in fainter ink that are partially covered by a swirl, presumably marking the end of the last item. Given that the previous item follows poems dated 1740, perhaps this ownership mark and list were copied before the manuscript was conceived of as a poetry miscellany.

p. 110–111 (the middle of an item attributed to Coles) sees the second hand take over for a page and a bit, taking up mid-sentence on p. 110. The only possible explanation for this, given that the beginning and the end of the item are in Coles’ hand, is that for whatever reason, he momentarily passed the book to a friend or family member to continue copying for him, and took it back shortly after. On p. 130 Coles also annotates one of the second hand’s items.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 35

Frequent annotations, eg. p. 62, 167.

63–66, 75–80 torn out.

Some cross-outs, eg. pp. 57, 72 but rare and small.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 36

f. 23r an entire piece crossed-out.

Addition of two poems at end in a different hand – using available blank space at a later date, seemingly mid-century.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 45

"X" mark in at least one margin.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 53

Intended as a gift for his brother, p. 71 : “Dear Bror./ According to my Promise, I have now Psented you wth the first Part of my Life; I have had a great Deal of Pleasure in Writing of it thus far, & that you may have some in reading it, is the sincere Desire of him who is/ yr. most affectiont.”

The dates of the Foster brothers’ ownership of the book (1780—only 39 years later) suggest his brother did not have the book for long, or it never reached him. p. 54 was seemingly left blank and filled-in in pencil with random letters and phrases by the Foster men (the bottom of the page says “Foster/ Thulston/ Derbyshire.”)

The above note to his brother also contrasts with the metapoem on p. 11 which threatens death to anyone who steals the book. This seems like an odd poem to put into a gift-book.

Latin/ English religious notes on inside front-cover and front-flyleaf.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 61

Fair copy manuscript with no edits or crossouts.

Lack of binding and "A Catalogue of the Books I have” of only four books suggests a socially humble compiler, although the list could also be incomplete. If not, perhaps copying from borrowed books and an example of an aspirational book. Note that Solomon Lowe published an English grammar in 1737 and Latin grammar in 1724, the latter of which went into at least two editions. The fourth book on the list is Lowe’s Sententiae pueriles or the fundamental rules of syntax illustrated by Latin examples and English excercises (1722). If this book was compiled c. 1715, this list would necessarily be a later addition.

Ink spill visible from p. 28 of the first section all the way to the last page and inside-back-cover of the manuscript, where the spill is seemingly concentrated. This could also be a bookworm burrow.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 93

The manuscript obviously was moved from one user to another and the secondary users felt confident in continuing the book, potentially even with their own works. 

f. 111v has pen trials/ signatures of Sarah Bignell in third hand.

Frequent appears of pastoral names. 

Leeds Brotherton Lt 99

Compiler changes about 30 pages in.

Short later poems (epigrams especially) written by the second compiler into the spaces at the bottoms of pages initially filled by the first compiler.

First half contains elaborate footnotes. 

Leeds Brotherton Ltq 51

p. 133 item headed “This Poem at page 215,” with a line drawn vertically over the middle of the text, though the poem is not organized in columns on either side of the line. I think this is perhaps an odd sort of cross-out, as the poem is copied in full on p. 215, and this copy appears incomplete. The header (then) is a redirection, and this is an abandoned first attempt.

p. 228 small cross-out stands out because cross-outs are extremely rare in this ms. Very much a fair copy book, aside from this and the p. 133 item.


Water, or watery ink, stains on p. 106.

Paste-in poem on p. 108.

p. 125 book turned, text written vertically as though to fit the end of the item into p. 125 before the new item began on 126 — perhaps a sign that some poems were written on later pages before earlier pages had been completed? 

Princeton Taylor no. 87

Alphabetical tabs suggest the book was perhaps intended as a commonplace book, but was used instead as a poetry book.

The answers to riddles appear directly underneath them, suggesting the book wasn't necessarily for social use.

Footnotes on pp. 42v–43v, 98r, 120r, 124v, etc.

Uniform presentation of titles etc. plus single date on the title page imply the book was compiled over a relatively short period of time.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 522

Pasted-in prints on front and back inside covers.

Final 3 lines of text erased at the bottom of p. 50; also a note earlier re: a poem being unfinished. 


UChicago Library Codex Ms. 549

Appears to reflect a local coterie including Mrs and Mr Blofeld, Revd. William Heath Marsh, Diana Lathom, Revd James Willins, and possibly others around the turn of the nineteenth century. The book seems like Marsh's presentation record of the exchanges and there's no indication that he exchanged/shared the book with his local network.

Multiple metapoems about the compilation process or the exchange of poetry, most notably: “To Mrs: Blofeld on her Selection of Poetry By The Revd William Marsh” (i, v1), “To Mrs: Blofeld who requested me to Write some lines but refused to give me a subject” (v2, 75–76), and “Presented to a Lady, With a Book of Poems” (v2, 97–99).

Scrap of print, potentially used as a bookmark in volume 1 between pages 127 and 128.

Multiple manuscript inserts in volume 2, mainly original poetry by members of the same circle.

Demonstrated interest in the Seaton Prize (Cambridge) (v. 1, p. 195; v. 1, p. 201; and v. 2 p. 70).

Rare footnotes in volume 1.

Interesting series v. 2 pp. 26–31 which are a poem, an imitation by Marsh, and a note about that imitation from Marsh to Mrs. Blofeld.

The last four pages of the second volume are copied in a different, potentially later hand; these pages are also unpaginated so probably not a part of the compiler's vision for the collection.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 551

Note the seemingly late addition of the last and only original poem, which is not in the Table of Contents.

Note on p. 37: “Watts seems to have borrow’d some of these thoughts from Horace Lib: 1 Od: 3 Lin: 9&c."

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 553

Note the list of authors at the end of the Table of Contents, which seems to suggest the compiler expected other people to read the book.

“Finis July ye 30th. 1717” at the end of the last poem; “Finis August ye. 6th. Finis 1717” at the end of the Table of Contents, which would suggest the Table of Contents was put together after the compiler had finished copying the poems.

Clean copy with very few editorial markings; almost certainly a presentation book.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 556

Subject matter is primarily focused on issues around ascension of Queen Anne and leading up to and during Act of Union; includes religious disputes between Episcopal and Presbyterian positions. The position of this manuscript seems to be Episcopalian and anti-Union.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 557

The manuscript seems a retrospective collection of what the compiler considers the best poems, perhaps using another collection as a basis. 

Riddle answers are given immediately. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 558

Either a presentation copy book or for use in religious singing; rare cross-outs are artful.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 581

Bound-with text suggests connection to Bath, reading about Bath.

Occasional footnotes, endnotes, and commentary.


UChicago Library Codex Ms. 636

Mainly a collection of original poems, though it’s worth noting that you get a sense of the community behind Tighe from the Answer to his chair poem (by C.H.), the numerous mentions of Amarantha, and the Epilogue spoken by his brother, Henry.

No answers to riddles, suggesting the collection was potentially assembled less for sociable than for preservation purposes.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 639

p. 15 includes excised names filled-in.

pp. 16–17 includes footnotes.

p. 18 comment "Imperfectly writ" next to title.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 69

Many pasted-in items from the Whitehall Evening Post.

The compiler comments appreciatively and nostalgically regarding the contents of the manuscript, particularly at the beginning or end of a work.  

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 739

30 or so pages removed at the front of the book. Some handwriting is evident on remaining slivers. 

Room for footnotes left at the bottom of folio 36r, though footnotes were not added. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 757

There's a clear sense that Church was guiding the composition of the book even though/when other hands made additions.

The Greville poem on p. 76 is accompanied by the note “see page 25” (which also features a Greville poem) and “Crew” is annotated “Mrs Crew her daughter very Beautifull"—possible indications that the book was intended for outside readership.

The arrangement of the different hands suggests they were mostly adding to the book around the same time that Elizabeth Church was compiling it; however, some smaller items may have been added in to blank spaces later on.