Item formatting

Standardized presentation of title;

Presence of a standard mark for ends of items;

Line numbers, if applicable.

Manuscript Note
Beinecke Osborn c110

Drawings at the end of each poem separate items.

Beinecke Osborn c111

Heavy rising stroke at the ends of poems.

Some slightly larger, relatively decorative poem titles.

Beinecke Osborn c130

Freely drawn lines (or sometimes double lines) at the ends of items.

Lines under titles. 

Beinecke Osborn c135

Titles and ends of poems marked by a horizontal line.

Beinecke Osborn c138

Titles in larger script.

Freehand horizontal line between poem and note at end of first poem and at end of most poems.

Beinecke Osborn c139–142

Somewhat decorative lines demarcating poems and titles.

Some more elaborate titles introducing lengthier works.

Beinecke Osborn c143

Large-script titles.

Heavy horizontal lines separating titles and poem texts of one poem from the next.

Beinecke Osborn c152

Ruled horizontal lines at ends of items.

Beinecke Osborn c154

One item follows the next with no separation of space or line, just a new title.

Beinecke Osborn c156

Beginning p. 77, the second hand (Mary Hilhouse) uses a series of horizontal lines to make an upside-down triangle pattern at the end of each item; the previous items copied by Hillhouse ended with a long dash after the final word, or a line of points beneath the final line.

Beinecke Osborn c157

Horizontal ruled lines under item headers and at the ends of items.

Beinecke Osborn c162

One blank leaf between each of the first three items.

Double red rules between stanzas.

Beinecke Osborn c163

Not much delineation between items – some endings marked by a series of horizontal dashes.

Beinecke Osborn c165

Decorative lines between items.

Beinecke Osborn c169

Quite plain.

Double horizontal rules at end of poems.

Beinecke Osborn c170

Pattern of loops under titles and at ends of poems.

Beinecke Osborn c172

Line of horizontal dashes above and below titles; otherwise items are continuous.

Beinecke Osborn c175

Short double ruled lines at ends of items, under titles, and even beside triplets.

Beinecke Osborn c176

Half lines under final few words of each item.

Some especially decorative item titles.

Beinecke Osborn c179

Flourishes at item ends.

Print-style titles for items.

Beinecke Osborn c186

Where there are titles, they are generally separated from the poem by a horizontal line.

Item endings marked by various kinds of devices – a row of small circles, a flourish, a ruled line, a double ruled line etc.

Beinecke Osborn c187

Items separated by a heavy horizontal line.

Copying continuous.

Beinecke Osborn c189

Pages with multiple items may have strokes to mark the end of each. No space between items.

Beinecke Osborn c193

Use of a kind of triangular flourish at the end of the final line of some poems.

Beinecke Osborn c241

Uniform presentation of poems, with single diagonal lines under titles and double diagonal lines between items.

Beinecke Osborn c258

Free-drawn horizontal lines separating titles and poems.

All titles have a standard pattern: "[Title] by [initial(s)]" – e.g. Seraphick Love by N.; The Wish by AC; On Death by TW – the final poem is an exception because it has no attribution.

Beinecke Osborn c265

Short ruled lines under titles; double ruled lines at the ends of items.

Running titles at the tops of pages.

Beinecke Osborn c341

Occasional swirl or line between items, but in general, items are seemingly back-to-back. 

Beinecke Osborn c343

Freehand horizontal lines under titles and at the ends of items.

Beinecke Osborn c351

Titles framed by decorative lines.

Items separated by lines.

Occasional use of numbered stanzas.

Beinecke Osborn c360 (1/3)

Very standardised presentation of titles, suggesting the manuscript was compiled over a shorter period of time. 

Many (at least half) items dated (perhaps all the ones original to Lepipre).

Lines between items.

Beinecke Osborn c376

Variable; both sections have freehand double horizontal line in right-hand margin to mark ends of some items.

First (later) section has some pages ruled in half vertically to facilitate short-lined verses. 

Beinecke Osborn c391

Lines under some titles.

Lines between items when they don’t end at the end of a page.

Beinecke Osborn c481

Lines between items. Dashes between shorter items (like mottos) that have been grouped together and some longer poems with numbered stanzas.

Titles are the same size as the body of the text with no underline, though normally at the top of the page or separated from the previous poem by a line.


Beinecke Osborn c536

Single and double lines between some items that are written on the same page, however, no lines under titles and generally very little to distinguish between one item and the next. 

Beinecke Osborn c563

Uniform presentation of titles (not underlined, just larger than the rest of the text).

Many poems with numbered stanzas.

New items begun on new pages. 

Beinecke Osborn c570

No lines between items or under titles.

Titles are written in a larger font than verses.

Beinecke Osborn c591

Very rough. Little separation between items. 

Beinecke Osborn c595

Nearly all of the copies of poems are dated, from September 23, 1788 to June 1, 1789.

Decorative (calligraphic) titles.

Beinecke Osborn c82

Title in the same font size as text.

Line of dashes separates items.

Beinecke Osborn c83

Simple lines separating items, not used consistently. 

Numbering of items is a unifying feature across volumes. 

Beinecke Osborn c90

Standard flourish after many entries, though not all.

Beinecke Osborn d226

No lines under titles or between items; new items are noticeable because of spacing around the title. Some blank pages between items.

Beinecke Osborn d232

Double rules between items.

Beinecke Osborn d233

Few lines between items. 

Plain presentation of titles.

Beinecke Osborn d256

Most items have a double ruled line at end, but sometimes, esp. towards end, these are very casually drawn; sometimes just a single line 

Beinecke Osborn d258

The first section has numbered items. 

Double-lines (or multiple lines) between items; new items generally begun on a new page.

In the first section, titles are generally one word, followed by a descriptive subtitle; in the second and third section, titles are the author's name (Nadir, Bree, or Rio) followed by a short thematic title.

Beinecke Osborn d267

Horizontal lines divide items, stylized to be thicker in the middle.

No other decorative features.

Beinecke Osborn d447

A very rough pen stroke divides items sharing a page.

Beinecke Osborn d49

Lines between items, even when items begin on a new page. 

Frequent lines under titles. 

Beinecke Osborn d492

"John Waite Book" appears throughout, usually at the ends of poems.

Decorative "Finis" at the end of each poem, plus other flourishes.

Large font and decorative titles.

Frequently numbered stanzas. 

Items regularly begun on a new page with only a couple exceptions. 

Frequent maxims, potentially original to the compiler, at the ends of poems, e.g. "If we did not flatter ourselves flattery from others would have no effect. John Waite Book" (114r).

Beinecke Osborn d494

A ruled horizontal line divides items, sometimes lines are doubled or tripled. 

Sometimes lines are also used under titles.

Beinecke Osborn d69

Occasional lines between stanzas. A later hand numbers some of the later poems' stanzas with Roman numerals. 

Items are frequently dated "Written —." This appears next to the title, top-right of the first page of the poem.

Beinecke Osborn d80

Heavily ruled lines between short items on the same page, occasionally between title and poem or between stanzas

Beinecke Osborn d93

Each item dated month and year at the bottom right corner, formatted, for example, "4th mo 1807." 

Titles mostly presented without underline or decoration. A handful of titles after p. 59 written in gothic style font surrounded by decorative curls. 

Beinecke Osborn fc124

No standard lines after titles or between items; no stanza numbers. Items are back-to-back if not pasted on top of each other.

Beinecke Osborn fc130

Several items copied from newspapers with newspapers attributed and dated. 

Lines between items.

Beinecke Osborn fc132

Many items followed by a place and date, presumably of where they were first read or copied.

Items are numbered up to p. 104 (#54). 

Titles written in larger font than the poem's text.

Usually a device or line separating items.

Beinecke Osborn fc135

Decorative swirls between items. 

Beinecke Osborn fc183

Calligraphic titles.

Various swirls and devices between items.

Lines between sections of poems.

Beinecke Osborn fc185

Lines between items and after titles. 

Beinecke Osborn fc51

No lines between titles and text, just a large space.

Very few lines between items; occasionally, there are a series of horizontal lines in the shape of a triangle, but generally there is just a large space.

Frequent numbered stanzas.

Beinecke Osborn fc58

Hand 1: Double lines under titles and in-between poems; frequent use of numbered stanzas.

Hand 2: Decorative swirls between items and under/over titles; frequent use of numbered stanzas.

Beinecke Osborn fd32

Calligraphic titles. 

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. c. 9

Single horizontal line separating items.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. d. 189

Frequent flourishes at ends of items.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. d. 47

Single red horizontal rule under titles.

Double rule between items.

Stanza numbers, speakers’ names, etc., also in red.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 111

Some titles and poem ends marked by a thick but watery ink line, but not invariably.

New poems begun on new pages (except in cases of paired poem & answer, prologue & epilogue, very short epitaph on young man drowning at Eton & Latin enigma).

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 18

Heavy horizontal line between items.

Very plain and neat manuscript.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 28

"Finis” and reverse triangle of horizontal lines at ends of many poems (where there is adequate space at end of poem, perhaps – new poems always begun at the top of the page up to post-1768 items).

When Joshua Peart materials begin p. 315, material is more crowded and there are fewer/ smaller markers, poems inserted immediately after one another.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 39

Double horizontal rules between items.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 40

Manicules to emphasize certain items.

All items are numbered.

Bodleian MS Eng. poet. e. 47

Very simple format, just freestyle horizontal line at end of each item.

Bodleian MS Mont. e. 14

Often a simple horizontal line between items, but can also have flourish, or upside-down triangle.

British Library Add. MS 28102

A flourish in the right-hand margin marking the end of each item (in prose/ poetry section).

British Library Add. MS 29981

Lines between items; occasional swirl at the end of an item in lieu of a line.

No lines under titles.

Frequent numbered stanzas.

British Library Add. MS 37684

Lines between items.

Frequent use of numbered stanzas.

No lines under titles; titles are simply centred on the page.

British Library Add. MS 58802

Generally a free-drawn horizontal line between items, but not a decoratively presented book.

British Library Add. MS 59656

Same format for each poem, with initials at the end of each indicating author.

British Library Add. MS 75569

Items at beginning quite carefully presented, but no decorative details – just relatively clear space between items, between titles and items. A frestyle horizontal dash to mark ends of items.

Chawton House 4946, MAN WIL

Notebook 1: Half-pages left empty, tendency to begin new poems on new pages, but shift in some cases later in the book; punctuation absent at the ends of many lines (unlike in other notebooks); device/ signature after each poem except one. 

Notebook 2:  Poems are back-to-back with a small flourish beneath last line of previous poem; punctuation consistent at the ends of lines; every item is dated; line between items; line between titles and first lines.

Clark MS 1950.025

Hand one uses consistent poem separator; hand two uses a different but consistent one as well. 

Clark MS 1956.002

Numbered lines. 

Fairly decorative titles for many items, though others just have *** and a headnote. 

Clark MS 1968.002

Items not normally titled. 

Difficult to determine the starts and ends of items. Sometimes there is a faint dash at the end of a final line which indicates the end of the poem. 

Clark MS 1976.014

Double rules generally at the ends of poems.

Headers sometimes give words in a bold/ heavily inked print format; all lettering is printed and main words bolded in the second section.

Clark MS 1982.001

One or more pen strokes to mark ends of poems.

Titles sometimes written a bit larger than the rest of the text, but not uniformly done.

Clark MS 1983.001

Horizontal rules between items except for last items in the column on the page. 

Clark MS 1983.002

[First] compiler uses double black rules for outer margins and ends of items, and uses running heads at the tops of the pages with double rules beneath. 

Clark MS 1986.003

The primary hand generally writes “Finis” at the end of an item. 

Clark MS 1987.001

Very ornate hand used for title page, item titles. 

Clark MS 1993.001

Titles written in a somewhat larger hand.

Freehand wavy line, spiral device or flourish between items, or else new items begin on new pages.

Clark MS 2000.005

Double rules after items.

Single rules after titles, which are in large hand.

Clark MS 2008.023

Decorative titles for first two volumes; in volumes 3 and 4, some spaces for titles (and authors) left for completion later; sometimes these are pencilled in.

Clark MS 2010.030

Titles written somewhat larger than the rest of the text.

Ruled horizontal line at the ends of each poem, which continues on same page.

Line numbers to the poems.

Clark MS 2019.001

Use of a somewhat larger font for poem titles.

No separation lines or spaces. Poems follow one another closely, sometimes with only one line of previous poem at the top of a page, or a few lines at the bottom.

Clark MS 2019.032

Large, decorative script for titles.

In some sections, use of red ink for short, double rules between items and under titles, but also for emphasis.

Clark MS 2019.038

Ruled in red between items. 

Signature and date at ends of pages of sections.

Folger MS M.a.103

Firm dark horizontal line between entries.

Folger MS M.a.104

Neat and regular format.

Titles for every item.

Folger MS M.a.110

Simple horizontal line separating items and sections taken from same items.

Folger MS M.a.116

Variable marks at the ends of poems – looped lines, double ruled lines, upside-down trianble-shaped pattern of parallel long lines to very short lines.

Signatures to every item in the first part of the book.

Folger MS M.a.142

Heavy double lines under titles and at ends of items, sometimes between stanzas or individual extracts from the same work, occasionally varied with other sorts of dividers.

Sometimes difficult to determine where one source ends and another begins.

Folger MS M.a.15

Titles especially ornate, also paragraph/section openings.

Folger MS M.a.162

Some entries are dated. 

Folger MS M.a.163

Dividing lines between poems, but of varying forms (single line, double line, single line with spiral).

Folger MS M.a.165-166

Two short parallel lines running diagonally from right to left after each poem at start of both volumes, but not all through either one.

Folger MS M.a.170

Items seperated by coloured lines.

Folger MS M.a.174

Uniform diagonal stroke from top right to lower left after each poem. 

Folger MS M.a.179

Similar decorative device between most entries, especially if they end mid-page.

Many pieces are dated.

Folger MS M.a.180

Not a very decorative book per se; but attempt to indicate where poems continue when using verso pages.

When 2-4 lines of poem remaining at bottom of page, often written sideways in margins.

Folger MS M.a.181

Series of fine points forming horizontal line after each item.

Riddles, charades, anagrams numbered throughout the book.

Folger MS M.a.182

Double rules between poems. 

Folger MS M.a.183

Short, double horizontal lines between items.

Folger MS M.a.185

Single horizontal line separating items.

“FINIS” written at end of poems (and the end of the Table of Contents).

Folger MS M.a.187

Wavy horizontal line between items.

Larger hand for titles.

Folger MS M.a.231

Horizontal lines (sometimes double-ruled) at ends of poems.

Folger MS M.b.13

Rough dotted lines between entries.

Folger MS M.b.21

Very free horizontal line at end of every item.

Every new item begun on a new page.

Folger MS N.b.3

Double lines between items.

Single lines under titles.

Folger MS W.a.103

Zigzag mark at end of each item.

Red line (same colour as margins) added in on pp. 24-7 for French Version of Prince of Wales’s letter to father.

Folger MS W.a.118

Occasional flourishes at ends of poems.

Folger MS W.a.119

Simple horizontal line between items.

Folger MS W.a.271

Sometimes a horizontal line entirely across page to show end of a poem.

Folger MS W.a.86

No uniform devices to mark ends of entries. 

Houghton MS Am 1369

All items pp. 1–23 end with some variation of, “Harvard College 175—,” sometimes underlined, often in a box or circle, sometimes decorative, sometimes simple.

Items p. 23–27 end, “Finis.”

Frequent lines between items, eg. p. 15.

Some attempts at decorative lines, eg. p. 25, but always very casual.

Houghton MS Am 1894

Curled lines between items.

Double or single lines under titles. 

Houghton MS Am 1894.1(1)

Clear presentation of titles.

Lines separating every item.

Many numbered stanzas—no breaks between stanzas, just numbers written at the start of the new stanza's first line. 

Houghton MS Am 1919

Swirled lines between items and under titles throughout the book. 

Houghton MS Am 910

Double lines between some items.

Single or double lines under some titles. 

Houghton MS Eng 569.63

Lines between items. 

Houghton MS Eng 584

Longer poems have title pages and/or running title headings.

Lines between items (sometimes single, sometimes double, sometimes broken) and decorative designs at the end of some items. 

Houghton MS Eng 606

Begins by using small lines to indiciate a new stanza (text is too close together to tell items apart otherwise) eg. pp. 37, 39. Then on pp. 71–74 stanzas are numbered with bold roman numerals. Then the rest of the manuscript, the stanzas are numbered with arabic numerals.

pp. 77–167 items are seperated by two clean (seemingly rulered) lines, whereas before that and in the ambigraph section, the items simply follow one another, or have a short, informal line scratched after the last word.

Houghton MS Eng 611

Vols. 1 and 2: Items presented back-to-back; titles written in the same size font as text.

Vol. 1: Regular lines between items.

Vol. 2:  In general, single lines between items, double lines between stanzas or short items, like epigrams, that are part of a larger section. This is inconsistent though, making the individual items within the larger sections very difficult to count.

Houghton MS Eng 614

Some underlining (seemingly for emphasis), but no lines between items, and items written one after another without breaks.

Authors and sources frequently written in little bubbles on the side of the page eg. p. 50.

Houghton MS Eng 680

Titles written in a larger, somewhat decorative font.

Double lines between most items; new items also frequently begun on new pages.

Double lines under most titles.

Occasional annotations.

Houghton MS Eng 768

New items frequently begun on new pages.

Double-lines between items, and each title and first line. Sometimes little drawings or beautiful symbols between items.

Houghton MS Eng 926

Simple, single lines between items. Items begun one after another with no breaks. 

Frequent underlines, seemingly for emphasis. 

Huntington MS 106

Separating lines between poems ruled in red ink.

Item titles are in large, decorative print with variable fonts, as though imitating a printed book.

Huntington MS 29165

Very plain book in sense of presentation of titles etc.

Huntington MS 82623

Black ruled lines separating items and underneath titles.

Huntington Stowe Vol. III

Line between items.

Uniform presentation of titles (not underlined).

Leeds Brotherton Lt 100

Small space between items, rare lines under titles or separating items.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 103

ff. 1-70 heavy bars separating titles/ headnotes from poems; freehand rising (oblique) line on the right-hand side of the page at the ends of poems.

From ff 71f, no lines between titles and poems, just a generous space; the end of the first poem marked “Finis” (f. 82), but not a regular practice.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 104

Rarely lines between items, but occasional dark lines between stanzas eg. f. 63.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 106

The first portion of the book uses a spiral device vertically down the page at the ends of items that end in mid-page; later, some items use a similar spiral mark, but it is oriented horizontally at the ends of items.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 11

Horizontal lines seperating items.

Running titles written across the top margin.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 110

Lines between items.

Occasional border around the item titles, eg. f. 10, which mostly stop after f. 16. After that, occasional lines under item titles, but not always.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 119

Very regular presentation: titles underlined freehand, ends of items marked by freehand horizontal line across the page.

Many titles marked by an asterisk indicating a note on the opposite page following the formula "Wrote by..."

Leeds Brotherton Lt 12

First hand regularly places short, simple horizontal lines between items; the second hand rarely marks between items at all.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 123

Clear lines between items.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 125

Lines between items; sometimes single, sometimes up to four; often seemingly with a ruler or something else to keep them straight, eg. p. 41, 68.

“Finis” at the end of longer items, eg. p. 41.

New items often begun on new pages, even if half the previous page remains, eg. pp. 46–47.

Decorative flourishes after items/ in remaining spaces on pages, eg. p. 46, 56, 69, 104, 106 etc.

No lines under titles; the space between titles and first lines are the titles’ only distinction.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 15

Frequently numbered stanzas.

Titles often written in what appears to be lighter coloured red ink.

Frequent faint, double-lines between items (again, likely red ink, though I can’t be sure). Also frequently ends items with “.~/” which makes differentiating between items easier than it might appear on first-glance at the manuscript.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 20

In the Virgil sections, decorative spiral flourishes separate items when there is space left on the page. The more space there is remaining on the page, the bigger the swirl. In the Miscellany section, lines separate items.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 24

Some decorative marks between items (eg pp. 18, 23, 44), though most items have no mark at all between them.

If an item fills more than one page, the title is often written at the top of each page it occupies.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 35

No lines between items or under titles.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 36

Simple lines under titles and between items; second hand does dashes between items. Very simple presentation. 

Leeds Brotherton Lt 45

Freedrawn horizontal lines between poems.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 53

A signature and date after most items (not just the original poetry).

Frequent use of decorative crosses on either side of titles and dates eg. pp. 81–82.

If an item fills more than one page, the title is often written at the top of each page it occupies.

Frequently includes date of copying at the end of the poem eg. p. 72.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 61

Very neat.

No dividing lines between items or under titles, just a bit of space. The items are clearly seperated and easy to tell apart though, given the regular use of titles, and attributions at the end of each item.

Leeds Brotherton Lt 93

Under many titles in the main (first) hand section there is a decorative horizontal border in two colours of ink (brown-black and light brown).

Leeds Brotherton Lt 99

Sometimes larger/special lettering for titles (e.g. p. 59).

Freehand horizontal lines at ends of poems that end in mid-page, but otherwise quite plain layout.

Leeds Brotherton Ltq 51

No lines between items; about half of the items are begun on a new page, the others are back-to-back. No lines under titles either.

In the miscellaneous section, titles are written in the margins, eg. p. 208.

Princeton Taylor no. 87

Numbered stanzas.

Lines under titles.

Lines between items.

Swirly lines next to certain lines of text for emphasis.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 515

Generous use of white space between poems.

Verso sides occasionally left entirely blank. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 515

Pagination not by compiler. Foliated by a curator beginning with the 2nd leaf. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 523

Simple looped or horizontal lines are used to mark the end of poems, and are often used to set off titles. 

Some poems indicate "continued" or "turn over" or "continued over leaf," etc., at bottom of page.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 549

No lines under titles.

Frequent dashes between items.

Occasional use of numbered stanzas.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 551

Frequent numbered stanzas.

Double lines or a squiggly line between items.

No lines under titles. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 553

Lines between items.

Lines under titles.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 556

Elaborate title lettering; titles entered even at bottom of pages. 

Simple horizontal lines separate poems not separated by titles.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 557

Poems marked 'FINIS' at ends. 

Pagination by the compiler up to p. 255, and is then continued sporadically.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 558

Double-ruled lines between items; occasionally accompanied by a free-hand swirl.

Pagination by folio

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 581

Page division, source attribution, or simple line between items.

Titles bear no demarcating features.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 636

Single lines between items.


UChicago Library Codex Ms. 639

Simple thick lines between items.

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 69

Pagination not continuous. Specific segments are paginated by the complier as part of various sequences, suggesting the book is a later binding of various gatherings of 12-16 leaves each. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 69

Very little uniformity. Some items have a vertically oriented free-drawn spiral at end, or a #-type device that could be initials.

Items are occasionally separated by an inverted triangle of lines; but at times just a rough horizontal line between items on a page.

Items are not always titled and sometimes difficult to determine due to lengthy anecdotal/critical preambles which proceed them. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 739

New items generally begin on new pages. 

UChicago Library Codex Ms. 757

Occasional lines under titles.

Regularly either a line or small device between items.